Lehrveranstaltungskommentar
Course description


Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, winter 2005/06
Dr Oliver Zöllner

Course title: International media research

Module: Europe and International Studies (E+S)
Dates: Thursdays 11.15 - ca. 1.30
First session: 20 October 2005
Venue: 23.02.02.22
NOTE: There will be no advance registration for this course. Just show up at the first session. If limited seating capacity won't permit everybody's admission, a ballot will be held.

Keywords: international communication, international relations, globalisation, radio and television, Internet, audiences, consumers, marketing, research methodology
Ever since the Gulf War of 1990/91, the general public has been aware of the role and the importance of international television and its live coverage of news events. Audiences residing in countries without freedom of speech and opinion have known the power of transborder radio for long. With the advent of online media, the Internet has become another vibrant platform for disseminating news and information globally. Whether BBC, CNN, Al-Jazeera or MTV: international media play a key role in creating what has once famously been labeled the 'global village'. Stay tuned for further developments.

Channel choice: rooftop satellite dishes in the old town of Dubai, UAE While domestic audiences and their media use get researched in great detail, the ways in which international or transcultural media are being used often remain terra incognita. Radio towers in Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Tamil Nadu, India

This course will offer an introduction to international media research, focusing in particular on international radio and television, the Internet, and their respective audiences, or consumers. Who is using such services, how, and why? Why do these services exist in the first place? How are they marketed? And what are appropriate methods, both quantitative and qualitative, for conducting research into these processes?

Apart from transnational broadcasters per se, special attention will be paid to media markets in Asia, many of them being or becoming important home bases or targets of transborder broadcasting - such as India, China, and the Arabic-speaking countries, to name but a few. Depending on participants' interests, non-Asian countries may become a focus of research as well.

A good to excellent command of the English language is a prerequisite for participating in this course. No German will be spoken. Participants will need to do a lot of reading - and research. The concept of the 'active audience' will be enforced.

Picture credits: Oliver Zöllner

Suggested reading (for a start):

Introductions, overviews and key texts:

Browne, Donald R.: International radio broadcasting: The limits of the limitless medium. New York, Westport, London 1983.
Chalaby, Jean K. (ed.): Transnational television worldwide: Towards a New Media Order. London, New York 2005.
Fortner, Robert S.: International communication: History, conflict, and control of the global metropolis. Belmont 1993.
French, David / Richards, Michael (eds.): Television in contemporary Asia. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London 2000.
Gilboa, Eytan: Global communication and foreign policy. In: Journal of Communication, 52 (2002): 4, pp. 731-748.
Gilboa, Eytan: The CNN effect: The search for a communication theory of international relations. In: Political Communication, 22 (2005): 1, pp. 27-44.
Hasebrink, Uwe / Herzog, Anja: Mediennutzung im internationalen Vergleich. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 136-158.
Hepp, Andreas / Krotz, Friedrich / Winter, Carsten (eds.): Globalisierung der Medienkommunikation. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden 2005.
Lie, Rico: Spaces of intercultural communication: An interdisciplinary introduction to communication, culture, and globalizing/localizing identities. Cresskill 2003.
McPhail, Thomas L.: Global communication: Theories, stakeholders, and trends. 2nd ed. Malden, Oxford, Carlton 2006.
Meckel, Miriam / Kriener, Markus (eds.): Internationale Kommunikation. Eine Einführung. Opladen 1996.
Moran, Albert / Keane, Michael (eds.): Television across Asia: Television industries, programme formats and globalization. London, New York 2004.
Watson, James: Media communication: An introduction to theory and process. 2nd ed. Basingstoke, New York 2003.

Media in the Arab World:

Ayish, Muhammad I.: Arab World television in the age of globalisation: An analysis of emerging political, economic, cultural and technological patterns (Hamburger Beiträge: Medien und Politische Kommunikation - Naher Osten und islamische Welt, Vol. 6). Hamburg 2003.
Ayish, Muhammad I.: Medien in den Golfstaaten. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004.
Berenger, Ralph: Media in the Middle East and North Africa. In: Thomas L. McPhail: Global communication: Theories, stakeholders, and trends. 2nd ed. Malden, Oxford, Carlton 2006, pp. 192-225.
Hafez, Kai (ed.): Mass media, politics, and society in the Middle East. Cresskill 2001.
Hahn, Oliver: Arabisches Satelliten-Nachrichtenfernsehen. Entwicklungsgeschichte, Strukturen und Folgen für die Konfliktberichterstattung aus dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten. In: Medien & Kommunikations-wissenschaft 53 (2005): 2-3, pp. 241-260.
Miles, Hugh: Al-Jazeera: How Arab TV news challenged the world. London 2005.

Media in Chile:

Carvajal Ribera, Julio: Medien in Chile. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 820-828.
Fox, Elizabeth: Latin politics, global media. Austin 2002.
Fox, Elizabeth: Latin American broadcasting: From tango to telenovela. Luton 1997.
Zöllner, Oliver: Kleiner Markt, hart umkämpft. Hörfunk und Fernsehen in Chile. In: Fernseh-Informationen, 55 (2004): 4, pp. 20-23.

Media in China:

Abels, Sigrun: Das Mediensystem in der VR China. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 828-859.
Donald, Stephanie Hemelryk / Keane, Michael / Hong, Yin (eds.): Media in China: Consumption, content, and crisis. London 2002.
Gui, Hao / Kopper, Gerd G. / Kupfer, Kristin: Massenmedien in der Volksrepublik China (Arbeitshefte Internationaler Journalismus, Band 2004/2). Bochum 2004.
Huang, Yu / Green, Andrew: From Mao to the millennium: 40 years of television in China (1958-98). In: David French / Michael Richards (eds.): Television in contemporary Asia. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London 2000, pp. 267-291.
Lin, Mu: Changes and consistency: China's media market after WTO entry. In: Journal of Media Economics, 17 (2004): 3, pp. 177-192.
Ollig, Stefan: Rahmenbedingungen und Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten ausländischer Fernsehprogrammanbieter in der VR China (Arbeitspapiere des Instituts für Rundfunkökonomie der Universität zu Köln, Heft Nr. 156). Köln 2002.
Shi, Anbin: The taming of the shrew: Global media in a Chinese perspective. In: Global Media and Communication, 1 (2005): 1, pp. 33-36.

Media in the Czech Republic:

Kinz, Andrea: Der medienkulturelle Wandel in Mittelosteuropa im Kontext von Globalisierung. In: MedienJournal, 29 (2005): 2, pp. 33-46.
Šmid, Milan: Medien in der Tschechischen Republik. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 661-670.

Media in India:

Butcher, Melissa: Transnational television, cultural identity and change: When STAR came to India. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London 2003.
Johnson, Kirk: Television and social change in rural India. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi 2000.
Joshi, Subhash R. / Bhatia, B.S.: Medien in Indien. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 871-882.
Koch, Elena: Medien in Indien: Organisation, Rezeption und gesellschaftliche Implikationen. In: Werner Draguhn (ed.): Indien 2003. Hamburg 2003.
Kumar, Keval J.: Mass communication in India. 3rd ed. Mumbai 2002.
Page, David / Crawley, William: Satellites over South Asia: Broadcasting, culture and the public interest. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London 2001.
Singhal, Arvind / Rogers, Everett M.: India's communication revolution: From bullock carts to cyber marts. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London 2001.

Media in Lithuania:

Balčytienė, Auksė: Das Mediensystem Litauens. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 412-429.
Balčytienė, Auksė: The changing role of media in post-communist Lithuania. Bochum 2002.
Ebert, Mathias: Bunte Basis. Die Medienlandschaft in Litauen. In: epd medien (2004): 74, pp. 5-6.
Europäisches Medieninstitut (ed.): Understanding the media in the Baltic countries. Düsseldorf 1998.

Media in Mexico:

Bohmann, Karin: Massenmedien und Nachrichtengebung in Mexiko. Saarbrücken 1986.
Fox, Elizabeth: Latin politics, global media. Austin 2002.
Fox, Elizabeth: Latin American broadcasting: From tango to telenovela. Luton 1997.
Trejo Delabre, Raúl: Medien in Mexiko. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 974-982.

Media in South Africa:

Bourgault, Louise M.: Mass media in sub-Saharan Africa. Bloomington 1995.
Eribo, Festus / Jong-Ebot, William (eds.): Press freedom and communication in Africa. Trenton 1997.
Fourie, Pieter J. / Wigston, David: Das Mediensystem Südafrikas. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2004/2005. Baden-Baden 2004, pp. 1041-1061.
Wasserman, Herman: Shifting selves: post-apartheid essays on mass media, culture and identity. Cape Town 2003.
Zegeye, Abebe: Media, identity and the public sphere in post-apartheid South Africa. Leiden 2003.

Methodology:

Babbie, Earl: The practice of social research. 5th ed. Belmont 1989.
Berg, Bruce L.: Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. 3rd ed. Boston 1998.
Deutsche Welle (ed.): An essential link with audiences worldwide: Research for international broadcasting (DW series, Vol. 5). Berlin 2002.
Hansen, Anders / Cottle, Simon / Negrine, Ralph / Newbold, Chris: Mass communication research methods. Basingstoke, London 1998.
List, Dennis: A quick guide to audience research. Wellington 2006. [Free download courtesy of Dennis List/Audience Dialogue here (PDF).]
Mytton, Graham: Handbook on radio and television audience research. 2nd ed. London, Paris, New York 1999.
Nardi, Peter M.: Doing survey research. A guide to quantitative methods. Boston 2003.
Zöllner, Oliver (ed.): Reaching audiences worldwide: Perspectives of international broadcasting and audience research (CIBAR proceedings, Vol. 1). Bonn 2003.
Zöllner, Oliver (ed.): Beyond borders: Research for international broadcasting (CIBAR proceedings, Vol. 2). Bonn 2004.
Zöllner, Oliver (ed.): Targeting international audiences: Current and future approaches to international broadcasting research (CIBAR proceedings, Vol. 3). Bonn 2005.


Bibliography:

Hafez, Kai / Reinknecht, Gottfried: Medien, Politik und Entwicklung in Afrika, Asien, Lateinamerika. Eine Auswahlbibliographie. In: Kai Hafez (ed.): Die Zukunft der internationalen Kommunikationswissenschaft in Deutschland (Schriften des Deutschen Übersee-­Instituts, Nr. 54; Beiträge der AG Internationale Politik und Politische Kommunikation, 3). Hamburg 2002, pp. 193-207.



» Helpful German Internet resources for finding relevant books and articles:
» Please consult the local e-catalogues: Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf
» Find literature from around the world: Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog
» Great for locating hard-to-find articles: Jahres-Aufsatznachweise der WDR-Bibliothek

» Academic associations dedicated to international communication research:
» International Communication Association (ICA)
» Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC)
» International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR)

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